Lee Richardson Zoo


Order Cetartiodactyla

Family Bovidae - gayal, gaur

Scientific Name:  Bos javanicus


DescriptionBanteng resemble domestic cattle in size. The male and female of the species are easily distinguishable due to sexual dimorphism. The adult males have a dark chestnut brown coat; Javan and Bornean individual’s coats are a darker blue-black. Females and juveniles are copper brown with a dark dorsal stripe. Both sexes have white on their lower legs, rump, muzzle, and above their eyes. Female’s horns are short and curve back and inward at the tips. Male’s horns are connected by a cornified band, a horn-like bald patch, and are longer with an upward arch. These cattle can measure over 5 feet at their shoulder and have a body length that can reach over 7 feet long. Their tails are around 27 inches long and they weigh 1,300 to 1,700 pounds.


Home Range:  Once widely distributed, historically ranging from southern China and northeast India throughout the mainland of southeast Asia, through Malaysia to the islands of Borneo, Java, and probably Bali. Today only seven populations with more than 50 banteng remain in the wild, primarily in wildlife refuges and sanctuaries; four in Java, two in Thailand, and possibly one in Cambodia. There is also a large non-native population in northern Australia.


Habitat Type:  Elevations from 9,900-16,500 feet. They shelter in rock crevices or small burrows.


Reproduction:   Found in open areas of dry deciduous, mixed deciduous and evergreen forests in low elevation zones.


Diet in the Wild:  Forages primarily on bamboo during the wet seasons then will feed primarily on bark during the dry seasons. Will also graze on grasses and other vegetation throughout the year depending upon availability.


Diet in the Zoo:  Grass/Bermuda hay, herbivore pellets, browse.


General Information:  Banteng are social herd animals. Herds can contain two to forty individuals. The herd is usually led by an adult cow and a single mature bull. Other males will group into bachelor herds. As ruminants, banteng alternate between periods of foraging and resting typically at two to three hour intervals. This species may be active during the day or night and has known to become nocturnal when humans are in their range.


Conservation Status:  Listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List as Endangered. This status is due to habitat loss, human disturbance, and over hunting for food as well as medicinal substances, sport, and trophy. This species is legally protected in all range states but is not yet included into CITES Appendix 1.



Asian Wild Cattle. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 July 2017. http://www.asianwildcattle.org/species/banteng/characteristics-and-life-history.html "Banteng photo." Arkive. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 July 2017. http://www.arkive.org/banteng/bos-javanicus/image-G18029.html "Bos javanicus ." Bos javanicus (Banteng, Tembadau). N.p., n.d. Web. 05 July 2017. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/2888/0 Wilson, Don E., Russell A. Mittermeier, Sue Ruff, Albert Martínez-Vilalta, Paolo Cavallini, and Toni Llobet. Handbook of the mammals of the world. Hoofed mammals. N.p.: n.p., 2011. Print.